Exploring the Deepest Part of the Ocean: The Submariner’s Journey

Deep beneath the surface of the Pacific Ocean, nestled between Guam and the Philippines, lies an enigmatic abyss known as the Marianas Trench, or the Mariana Trench. At a staggering 35,814 feet below sea level, this vast trench is home to the Challenger Deep, the deepest point known to humanity. To put it into perspective, imagine the depth of the Atlantic Ocean where the historic Titanic rests at 12,600 feet below the surface. The Challenger Deep plunges nearly three times deeper than that.

Testing the Limits of Pressure

Few individuals have ever had the opportunity to explore the depths of the Challenger Deep. In fact, it was 59 years ago, this week, that Navy Lt. Don Walsh, a skilled submariner, and explorer Jacques Piccard made history as the first two people to reach these unfathomable depths. Walsh, with his engineering background, served as a test pilot for the Trieste, a groundbreaking deep-diving research submersible acquired by the Navy. The Trieste was specifically engineered with 5-inch-thick steel walls to withstand the tremendous pressures found in the deep sea. To put it into perspective, those walls experienced an astonishing eight tons of pressure per square inch, equivalent to 2,365 pounds weighing down on a single fingernail.

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On January 23, 1960, Walsh and Piccard embarked on a five-hour, 6.78-mile odyssey that ultimately led them to the world’s deepest-known point.

A Glimpse into Another World

What did the intrepid explorers find at the bottom of the Challenger Deep? Walsh provided insights during an interview with the Office of Naval Research, where he shared his extraordinary experience:

“As we approached the seafloor, we could see it coming up, and we did see about a foot-long flatfish, like a halibut or sole — small. But that told us quite a bit, just that one glimpse, because that’s a bottom-dwelling form — two eyes on one side — and if there’s one, there’s more. That tells you there’s also sufficient oxygen and food at that depth because they’re bottom-dwelling.”

He continued, “We did not see anything at the bottom once we landed because the bottom sediment stirred up, and it was like somebody painted our viewport white. We spent a half-hour on the bottom, and the rest of the time coming up. And that was it.”

While their observations may seem minimal, they opened up an entire new realm of exploration for future researchers.

Undersea Exploration and the Navy

The Navy has always possessed a keen interest in undersea exploration, driven by navigation, scientific research, education, and strategic purposes. By 1958, it funded nearly 90 percent of all oceanographic ventures in the United States. The Trieste’s historic dive served as the pinnacle of Project Nekton, a series of dives aimed at testing the viability of manned craft at extreme depths for studying marine life. These dives also aimed to delve into the interactions of temperature, pressure, and sound at great depths, addressing various scientific inquiries.

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Whether the Navy is diving, collecting crucial scientific data, investigating shipwrecks, or testing autonomous underwater vehicles, its mission in undersea exploration continues to evolve, fostering collaborations with diverse partners in the civilian scientific community.


Q: What happened to the Trieste after its historic dive?

A: The Trieste now resides as part of the undersea exploration exhibit at the National Museum of the U.S. Navy in Washington.

Q: Has anyone returned to the Challenger Deep since Walsh and Piccard?

A: Yes, explorer and filmmaker James Cameron revisited the Challenger Deep in 2012.


The journey to the depths of the Challenger Deep remains a testament to human curiosity, resilience, and the pursuit of knowledge. Through the courage of individuals like Navy Lt. Don Walsh and the advancements in undersea exploration, we continue to unravel the mysteries that lie beneath the surface of our vast oceans. As we delve deeper, we gain a deeper appreciation for the incredible diversity and complexity of life in the depths, inspiring us to protect and preserve these fragile ecosystems for generations to come.

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